Pioneers of the 1990s

Virtual Reality in Visual Arts came into existence in the late 1980s. The costly experiences (up to 1 Million USD production costs) have been supported by companies like Jaron Lanier’s VPL Research or institutions like The Banff Centre, Alberta, Canada. Our aim is to document the historical VR artworks. Unfortunately, many of the VR artworks are not preserved, so that many artists do not consent to communicate their documentations or simply there is no more documentation material available. Here, we provide a list of early VR artworks and further information on several of them. Please contact us for more information, additions, and further exchange.


Nicole Stenger, Angels, 1989-91

Monika Fleischmann & Wolfgang Strauss, Berlin - Cyber City, 1989-91

Monika Fleischmann & Wolfgang Strauss, Home Of The Brain, 1989-1991

Diana Gromala & Jacov Sharir, Dancing With The Virtual Derwish, 1990

Matt Mullican, Five Into One (The World Unframed), 1991

Michael Scroggins, A Topological Slide, 1991

Matt Mullican, Five Into One, 1991

Ulrike Gabriel & Bob O’Kane, Breath, 1992

Ulrike Gabriel & Bob O’Kane, Perceptual Arena, 1992

Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun, Inherent Rights, 1992

Jenny Holzer, Cube Heads, 1993

Jenny Holzer, Jeff Donovan, Bosnia, 1993

Mario Canali, Marcello Campione, Stefano Roveda, SATORI, 1993

Rachel Strickland & Brenda Laurel, Placeholder, 1993

Patrice Caire, Cyberhead, 1994

Char Davies, Osmose, 1995

Eduardo Kac, Rara Avis, 1996

Char Davies, Ephemere, 1998